This is not intended to be a rebuild guide. I am simply trying to show you how one works.

This is a torque converter [TC].

The side you see mounts on the shaft in the next picture.
The side you don't see bolts to the drive plate[called a flywheel in a manual transmission]
Inside it has 2 separate sets of blades [like fan blades]. One set is achored to the outer housing [bolted to the drive plate].This is the pump. The other set is mounted to a bearing set, and spins on it's own. This is the turbine. It has a hole in the center that is splined, which we'll get back to in a minute.
The TC is full of Automatic Transmission Fluid [ATF]. When the engine spins it spins the pump. This pumps the fluid onto the turbine. Which causes it to spin.
This is why a automatic transmission is called a fluid coupling.
There is also a "plate" [called a stator] that sits in between the 2 and directs the ATF back to the pump. The stator has a hole in the center that is splined.
Remember the splined hole in the turbine?
The shaft in the next picture slides into that[the shaft has 2 parts. The inner shaft is the one that connects to the gearsets. The outer shaft slides into the stator and is stationary, holding the stator stationary as well]

This is the front of the transmission. But it's upside down. The hole in the bottom left is where the starter sits. The hole in the upper right that is surrounded by darker metal is where the pass side CV shaft slides in.
The large [semi] clean ring is the inside of the bellhousing. It's the really fat part of the transmission. Normally it bolts to the engine.
In the center we have the splined shaft[s] that slide into the TC.

If you look back at the picture of the TC, you will see 2 notches in the center. The 2 tits in the center of the pump in the next picture slide into those notches. This is a pic of the pump split apart. The hollow shaft on the left is the shaft that slides into the stator.

Remember, the outer part of the TC is spinning with the engine. So are those 2 notches. They spin the pump in the center of the above housing. This pump provides pressure to the rest of the transmission, which I'll go into later.

Here are several more pics of the pump and housing.
Pump removed and set on gears.
Here's a good look at the 2 shafts. The one on the left is the one that slides into the turbine.

Rear of pump.

Inside of pump. The other side of this plate is on the outside.

That is all for tonite.
I'll continue tomorrow or whenever I get a chance.