CelicaTech Main Page  CelicaTech Member List CelicaTech Image Gallery CelicaTech Data Garage Chatroom CelicaTech Forums Search CelicaTech Forums Contact CelicaTech
+ Reply to Thread
Page 1 of 8 1 2 3 ... LastLast
Results 1 to 25 of 194
  1. #1

    Default 3SGTE into my ST162 - "FWD Fury"

    Since I purchased my GTS in the spring of 2007, I had always entertained the thought of doing a swap to give my car the power it deserves. But the final straw came at last year's Ogopogo meet, when the others were leaving me in the dust; no amount of drafting, sling-shot passing, and the cranking of "Radar Love" to 11 could help me achieve the speed I wanted.

    But the pieces finally fell into place this winter when the organ donor appeared and presented a good opportunity for both my brother (ChrisD) and I:

    http://www.celicatech.com/forums/showthread.php?t=45139

    He parted it out to make some extra dough, and I got the engine - and, more importantly, his expertise - at a severely discounted rate. Here's the donor at its worst, prior to it being in our possession:




    Anyway, here's my 162 and the eventual home of the 3SGTE:




    The transmission from the donor is royally screwed and we'll be using mine from the 162 (which is actually a JDM 5th gen anyway).

    This past weekend we were able to start working away at the engine. Over the course of the past few days we were able to remove the engine completely. Removing the exhaust and the damaged axle proved to be a bit of a challenge, but we were able to accomplish our goal for the weekend:

    Ready to begin:



    The project actually began late on Friday night when we installed some shelving in Chris' garage. Running a pseudo chop shop takes up a lot of space!



    Removing everything:





    Chris had an overflow problem with a used oil container, so I decided to take a picture rather than to actually help:



    Ready to remove the engine. After trying to lift it up unsuccessfully, we dropped it instead:



    Woo! She's out. Big step completed:



    So what's next? The project will go on hold for a week or two while we finish up the part-out. The final pieces will be removed and then we get to chop it out with the sawzall. Once that's done, my GTS will makes its way into the garage and engine pull number two will commence.

    Plans are ongoing, but Chris will be taking care of the wiring conversion and we'll be looking at installing a front-mounted intercooler such as this one from Treadstone:

    http://www.treadstoneperformance.com...R8+Intercooler

    Chris' 165 will be getting one in the near future too!

    The project just kicked off, so I'll have more to come in the next few weeks with some more progress pics.

    I say it lots, but I need to say it here as well. HUGE thanks to my brother for helping me with this project. Without him, it simply wouldn't be possible.
    1989 ST162 GTS with 185 engine
    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.



    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

  2. #2
    Drove all the way to TN, for the hotel. CriScO has a reputation beyond repute CriScO has a reputation beyond repute CriScO has a reputation beyond repute CriScO has a reputation beyond repute CriScO has a reputation beyond repute CriScO has a reputation beyond repute CriScO has a reputation beyond repute CriScO has a reputation beyond repute CriScO has a reputation beyond repute CriScO has a reputation beyond repute CriScO has a reputation beyond repute CriScO's Avatar
    CriScO has been to an annual Dragon Meet! CriScO has donated to the forums! CriScO helped get Grayscale's Celica towed from The Dragon in 2008. CriScO helped Azzy get to The Dragon in 2009. CriScO helped bring Chaos back to the Dragon

    Join Date
    Jun 2007
    Location
    Golden, CO; Azz's Pants
    Posts
    3,053
    Images
    522

    Default

    Damn I love your GT-S. Cleanest hatchback I've ever seen. Good luck with the swap!

    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

    The Coupe:
    - Custom SRI, external coil distributor conversion, MSD Blaster 2 coil, MSD 6a ignition, OBX 4-1 Header, 2.5" exhaust with Magnaflow muffler, Eibach springs, GT-S hub/rear disc conversion, Lots of shiny red engine paint, Ridiculously unnecessary 5" tach, Tons of fun useless switches and pretty glowing red lights, Currently sitting in the driveway with a snapped timing belt I'm too lazy to fix...
    The Hatch:
    - Custom SRI, External coil distributor conversion, Accel performance coil, Hayden transmission cooler, ASI dual-core aluminum ST165 radiator, Some shiny black engine paint, A few glowing red lights, Temporarily downgraded to daily driver status...

  3. #3

    Default

    I am SO glad you finally got a project thread started!
    I have bugged your brother about it for a while now.

    I wish you guys would have PM'd or called me, I could have told you by phone how to pull that motor complete in absolutely no time.

    You are in good and capable hands there either way Ryan.
    Your brother Chris is an intelligent and resourceful fellow, you will both fare well in your projects.

    Best wishes and looking forward,

    - Mario
    - Mario
    - Shadow's Army - 5 star General -

    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

    Questions?

    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.


    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.


    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.


    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.


    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.
    .


    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.


    "We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a Habit."

  4. #4
    Ultimo Miembro Fantástico Gigantesco ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD's Avatar
    ChrisD has been to an official Ogopogo Meet! ChrisD has donated to the forums! ChrisD helped get Luni's MR2 back on the road! ChrisD helped bring Chaos back to the Dragon ChrisD helped KM replace his 5-year-old clutch.

    Join Date
    Nov 2004
    Location
    Calgary AB Canada
    Posts
    6,469
    Images
    913

    Default

    I'm most thankful we had some warm weather to work in! This is definitely the missing piece to your car.

    Thanks Mario - the process didn't take a tonne of time, we ran into a couple issues with seized bolts that slowed us down. Even air tools weren't helping! Dropping it actually made more sense anyway, minimizes the use of garage space in there.

    It will be exciting once we get to work on Ryan's car. Can't wait.
    1988 ST165 2.2L @ 370awhp
    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

    1994 ST205 WRC
    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.


    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

  5. #5

    Default

    good luck guys! I will come help(drink the booze while you guys do the work(aka: supervise)), let me know if you need me to bring some tools.

  6. #6

    Default

    Thanks for the encouragement and the compliments, guys. This is a pretty exciting project.
    1989 ST162 GTS with 185 engine
    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.



    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

  7. #7
    Member rev_head will become famous soon enough

    Join Date
    Mar 2009
    Location
    Melbourne, Australia
    Posts
    114

    Default

    was wondering when this would start cant wait for updates. couldnt be a more deserving 162 for the gte convertion

    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

  8. #8

    Default

    I should really re-name this thread, as it certainly entails more than just an engine swap. Chris and I didn't get a whole lot done last week for various reasons, mostly because of scheduling and whatnot, but we certainly made up for lost time today.

    We got together on Thursday night and intended to remove the glass and cut off the roof of the donor car, but we didn't have the right tools to remove the windshield and side windows. As you know from the previous update, we dropped the engine so what we did finish on Thursday night was cutting off some of the bracing of the front clip to slide the engine out so that we could access and work on it easier.

    Today we made a quick stop at Princess Auto and got the right tools to remove the glass.

    We did our absolute best to keep the windshield in its perfect condition, but we quickly learned that working with auto glass isn't the simplest of jobs. We got the windshield out, but it suffered cracks all over the place when we were finished. Oh well, life goes on. But we were able to successfully remove the two side windows and keep them intact, despite the ridiculous amounts of epoxy that were holding them in and the failure of our removal tool near the end (the blade that goes underneath the glass to cut the glue snapped off while in use).

    Once that was complete, we busted out the sawzall and made short work of the roof. The 185 was converted into a sporty convertible!

    Of course, we did more than just the cutting of sheet metal. In addition to that, we were able to remove various interior accessories (e-brake, seat belts, etc), the remaining door and window, brake lines, as well as the gas tank. That was a plus in itself, as it gave me with a full tank of fuel for my truck!

    Chris also tackled some work on the engine. He removed the intercooler, downpipe, and noticed that the spark plug wires were originals ('92 stamped).

    All told, it was an extremely productive day. Only a few things left to remove from the rear of the car (rear differential, exhaust) and then we can cut this thing all apart and make several trips to the dump/metal scrapper. Here are a couple pictures to show just how bare this thing is looking. Soon my 162 will makes its way into the garage and the swap will truly get to an exciting level.



    1989 ST162 GTS with 185 engine
    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.



    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

  9. #9

    Default

    Another productive evening in the chop-shop and we're starting to see the end of the part-out.

    Here's what we accomplished in a couple hours tonight:

    - Removed miscellaneous parts from the engine bay (power steering reservoir, AC hose, etc) to just have metal left.
    - Removed the right-rear suspension
    - Removed the heater components from the dash area
    - Removed part of the exhaust to make room for our upcoming cutting sequence
    - Spent too long trying to switch blades from the sawzall (obvious design flaw that's a problem we have to accept and deal with, lol)

    But once we got the blade switched out we cut off the front clip!







    I just noticed that you can see how big the puddle is underneath the car. We needed to cut through some of the brake lines, haha. No big deal for the sawzall:





    On Saturday, all this and what you don't see (the side of Chris' garage is full of random crap) will be loaded into my small Ford Ranger. It will require several loads to the metal scrapper/dump, but it will be quite satisfying!
    1989 ST162 GTS with 185 engine
    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.



    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

  10. #10

    Default

    i feel sorry for the car you just cut up....but hey life goes on.

    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

    OREGON TOYOTA OWNERS CLUB LEADING MEMBER

  11. #11

    Default

    Haha, we felt a little bad before we started too. But the car was completely messed up and we figured this would also be a good way to help keep other Celicas on the road or to help them get back there. That's the great thing about organ donors! Nothing's going to waste.
    1989 ST162 GTS with 185 engine
    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.



    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

  12. #12
    Ultimo Miembro Fantástico Gigantesco ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD's Avatar
    ChrisD has been to an official Ogopogo Meet! ChrisD has donated to the forums! ChrisD helped get Luni's MR2 back on the road! ChrisD helped bring Chaos back to the Dragon ChrisD helped KM replace his 5-year-old clutch.

    Join Date
    Nov 2004
    Location
    Calgary AB Canada
    Posts
    6,469
    Images
    913

    Default

    Haha, yeah the car was long gone before we got to it. Would be too cost prohibitive to try to fix.

    I'm excited to get this thing out of my garage! Things will definitely start to move quickly once Ryan's car is in there.

    Also, I wouldn't mind parking my own cars in there sometime in the foreseeable future.
    1988 ST165 2.2L @ 370awhp
    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

    1994 ST205 WRC
    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.


    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

  13. #13

    Default

    Yeah very sad, but I've fixed two cars using parts from that beast

    Cheers! to the organ donor, RIPieces

    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

    94 JDM ST205
    94 JDM SW20
    91 JDM ST185 RC

  14. #14

    Default

    ^ Damn right man!

    Tonight we got some more done. We cut the firewall in half to make the pieces more manageable for the dump trips. It went fairly smooth, but it got a little difficult with that 90 degree turn, as that also happened to be where the greatest layering of metal was. Only two more cuts to make and I predict they'll go pretty smooth.

    Here are a few pictures. It's looking less like a car skeleton and more like a heap of metal now - and that's what we want!









    When liquid wrench doesn't do the trick, you need to bust out the heavy artillery on these exhaust bolts:



    Tomorrow we need to remove the sub-frame and then make the final cuts. After that, we'll disassemble a few things (transmission for the dump and the rear diff for selling) and we can make our series of dump trips on Saturday. Our goal remains the same...have Chris' garage full with two running vehicles by Saturday night. We should be able to get it done.
    1989 ST162 GTS with 185 engine
    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.



    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

  15. #15

    Default

    Ryan,
    I would also recommend if it is still possible, cutting out the rear pan and putting together a "AWD Conversion" kit.

    You have all that is necessary and if packaged as such, you could make some decent $.

    Great work so far.

    Also, that last photo with he sparks flying is made of WIN!
    - Mario
    - Shadow's Army - 5 star General -

    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

    Questions?

    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.


    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.


    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.


    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.


    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.
    .


    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.


    "We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a Habit."

  16. #16
    Ultimo Miembro Fantástico Gigantesco ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD's Avatar
    ChrisD has been to an official Ogopogo Meet! ChrisD has donated to the forums! ChrisD helped get Luni's MR2 back on the road! ChrisD helped bring Chaos back to the Dragon ChrisD helped KM replace his 5-year-old clutch.

    Join Date
    Nov 2004
    Location
    Calgary AB Canada
    Posts
    6,469
    Images
    913

    Default

    I think the trouble we'd run into is shipping. The size of the pan would require freight shipping, which I am not keen on doing. We can think about it I suppose. With that said, the diff, drive shaft, rear axles are sold and much of the right hand side suspension items are fuked.

    LOL, wicked shot there as I made (kinda) short work of that bolt. to get at the 2nd exhaust bolt we decided to just pull the subframe first. Might be the first person in history to remove the subframe just to remove the exhaust!
    1988 ST165 2.2L @ 370awhp
    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

    1994 ST205 WRC
    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.


    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

  17. #17

    Default

    You made short work of the tip of your finger too, but I didn't get that shot.
    1989 ST162 GTS with 185 engine
    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.



    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

  18. #18

    Default

    Quote Originally Posted by RyanD View Post



    .
    Chris looks psycho here, Calgary Chainsaw Massacre....hehe

    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

    94 JDM ST205
    94 JDM SW20
    91 JDM ST185 RC

  19. #19
    Ultimo Miembro Fantástico Gigantesco ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD's Avatar
    ChrisD has been to an official Ogopogo Meet! ChrisD has donated to the forums! ChrisD helped get Luni's MR2 back on the road! ChrisD helped bring Chaos back to the Dragon ChrisD helped KM replace his 5-year-old clutch.

    Join Date
    Nov 2004
    Location
    Calgary AB Canada
    Posts
    6,469
    Images
    913

    Default

    LOL!

    The car, is now gone!

    Pics to come...
    1988 ST165 2.2L @ 370awhp
    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

    1994 ST205 WRC
    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.


    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

  20. #20
    Senior Member DudeMan will become famous soon enough DudeMan's Avatar

    Join Date
    Jan 2009
    Location
    Edmonton, AB.
    Posts
    813

    Default

    Never noticed this thread until now, great work guys.

    It's too bad we live 3 hours away or I'd offer a hand.

    Just out of curiosity, what condition were the inner and outer rocker panels in?

  21. #21

    Default

    Quote Originally Posted by DudeMan View Post
    Never noticed this thread until now, great work guys.

    It's too bad we live 3 hours away or I'd offer a hand.

    Just out of curiosity, what condition were the inner and outer rocker panels in?
    Left hand side were good(no rust anywhere on this car), Right hand side, well look at the very first photo of this thread, and that should tell you

    Quote Originally Posted by ChrisD View Post
    LOL!

    The car, is now gone!

    Pics to come...
    Sweet! great work! I cant wait to see Ryan's FWD Fury in action.

    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

    94 JDM ST205
    94 JDM SW20
    91 JDM ST185 RC

  22. #22

    Default

    It was a very rewarding past couple of days. Chris and I stayed up relatively late last night finishing up the removal and cutting of a few pieces. We were probably the first people in the world to do this series of events:

    - Remove the sub-frame so we could remove the exhaust
    - Then lift the entire rear shell away to reveal the sub-frame (and so we could cut it up easier...you'll see in the pictures, lol)

    The pictures aren't great because of the sunlight that was lighting up half the garage, but you get the idea of how it looked this morning before we carted things away.

    Three truckloads took care of everything - two to the metal scrapper which gave us a cool profit of $30, and one to the dump which set us back $26. We netted $4 bucks out of it! As long as we didn't have to pay anything, we were happy.







    The side of Chris' garage also served as storage space for random parts and cut up steel:





    The engine neatly tucked away for the time-being:





    So what's next? I think we're going to take a few days off and start the swap officially next week. We'll park my GTS in the garage so we can remove the harness and Chris can get working on the wiring job while I clean up the engine. Very exciting day!
    1989 ST162 GTS with 185 engine
    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.



    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

  23. #23

    Default

    Great progress you two!

    I am excited for you to finish and tell us how awesome it is.
    - Mario
    - Shadow's Army - 5 star General -

    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

    Questions?

    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.


    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.


    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.


    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.


    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.
    .


    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.


    "We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a Habit."

  24. #24
    Ultimo Miembro Fantástico Gigantesco ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD's Avatar
    ChrisD has been to an official Ogopogo Meet! ChrisD has donated to the forums! ChrisD helped get Luni's MR2 back on the road! ChrisD helped bring Chaos back to the Dragon ChrisD helped KM replace his 5-year-old clutch.

    Join Date
    Nov 2004
    Location
    Calgary AB Canada
    Posts
    6,469
    Images
    913

    Default

    I love the last pic of the empty garage...first phase complete! Seriously got a lot done over the last couple weeks.

    Really looking forward to getting the 162 in the garage, finishing up the wiring and moving on to the "fun" stuff.
    1988 ST165 2.2L @ 370awhp
    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

    1994 ST205 WRC
    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.


    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

  25. #25
    Ultimo Miembro Fantástico Gigantesco ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD has much to be proud of ChrisD's Avatar
    ChrisD has been to an official Ogopogo Meet! ChrisD has donated to the forums! ChrisD helped get Luni's MR2 back on the road! ChrisD helped bring Chaos back to the Dragon ChrisD helped KM replace his 5-year-old clutch.

    Join Date
    Nov 2004
    Location
    Calgary AB Canada
    Posts
    6,469
    Images
    913

    Default

    Quote Originally Posted by DudeMan View Post
    Never noticed this thread until now, great work guys.

    It's too bad we live 3 hours away or I'd offer a hand.

    Just out of curiosity, what condition were the inner and outer rocker panels in?
    Hehe no worries. We'll get to meet up at least next weekend while we are in town. Diff is off and ready to go for ya.

    Well, the rocker panels on the left hand side were technically fine, the right hand side was damaged due to the accident. Unfortunately, it's all at the metal recyclers now. Hey - do you have any use for the subframe? This one is fairly clean if yours is rusted bad.
    1988 ST165 2.2L @ 370awhp
    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

    1994 ST205 WRC
    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.


    To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 10 or greater. You currently have 0 posts.

Thread Information

Users Browsing this Thread

There are currently 1 users browsing this thread. (0 members and 1 guests)

     

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
Top Member List Chat Forum Search Contact Top